Technology and Engineering
  • ISSN: 2333-2581
  • Modern Environmental Science and Engineering

Fishery Aspects and Social-Economic Profile of the Artisanal Fishermen in the City of Pinheiro, Maranhão, Brazil

Kerly Cristina Melo Pereira, Vanessa Evellin Sousa Corrêa, Carlos Eduardo Santos Soares, and Getulio Rincon

Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Brazil

Abstract: The city of Pinheiro is located in the Baixada Maranhense microregion, north of the state of Maranhão, Brazil, and forty-eight kilometers from the coast. This region is in the western limits of the legal Amazonian region. The city of Pinheiro is at the left margin of the Pericumã river. Thus, it was developed a descriptive study of the artisanal fishery activities of the continental fishermen of Pinheiro by means of a structured questionnaire. Fifty-nine fishermen were interviewed from this universe, sixteen women (27.1%) and forty-three men (72.9%). This fishery is characterized by the use of unmotorized canoes with one or two fishermen, with eight hours of fishing activity by day and variation of three to twenty-four hours fishing activity. The fishing gears are gillnets (monofilament with 3 cm between opposite knots), casting net, socó and hand line, in that order of importance. The main captured species are: traíra (Hoplias malabaricus) and capadinho (Trachelyopterus galeatus). The level of education presented indicates predominance of incomplete elementary school (33.9%), followed by incomplete elementary school (23.7%), while complete or incomplete high school was registered in about 15.3% of fishermen. Fishermen’s age ranges from 25 to 69 years (mean = 48.7 years and standard deviation = 8.3 years) and their fishing time ranges from 6 to 60 years. The declared monthly income was below the minimum wage (R$ 954.00 or US$ 289.78) and the number of family dependents averaged 3.46 people, ranging from 1 to 8 people. Most fishermen claimed to depend on fishing as their main source of income and 45.8% reported fishing as their only source of income. Preliminary results suggest a heavy reliance on fishing activity and a low general education of fishermen, making it impossible to search for income alternatives that do not depend on unprocessed natural resources. Thus, it is necessary to develop public policies for the training of fishermen and break this pernicious cycle.

Key words: small-scale fishery, Pericumã river

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