Technology and Engineering
  • ISSN: 2333-2581
  • Modern Environmental Science and Engineering

Main Features of Geological Structure and Geotourism Potential of Georgia, the Caucasus

Irakli Gamkrelidze1, Avtandil Okrostsvaridze2, Ferando Maisadze3, Levan Basheleishvili3, Giorgi Boichenko4, and
Irakli Skhirtladze4
1. Earth Sciences Department, Georgian National Academy of Sciences, Tbilisi, Georgia
2. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ilia State University, Georgia
3. Tectonics Department, Al. Janelidze Geological Institute, Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia

4. Geological Department, Institute of Earth Sciences and GNSN, Ilia State University, Georgia

Abstract: The general overview of geology of the territory of Georgia as a component of Caucasian segment of the Mediterranean (Alpine-Himalayan) collisional orogenic belt is presented. Georgia is built up of Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic metamorphic complexes of supra-subduction zones, Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary, submarine and subaerial volcanic rocks and intrusives of various ages and composition. The unique geological structure of Georgia’s territory allows to be distinguished of several potential geoparks and geotourist routes. As the potential geoparks we could consider: 1) Kazbegi - Quaternary volcanoes and Pre-Jurassic Daryali massif; 2) Vardzia – Upper Miocene Megacaldera, its an ignimbrite flow (35 km length), explosion products of 1 km thickness and Vardzia rock-cut city; 3) Dmanisi - Dmanisi hominids site and the Mashavera gorge basaltic flow of 20 km length; 4) Sataplia - Dinosaur Footprints, together Sataplia and Prometheus caves. Geotourist route: 1) Tbilisi-Pasanauri-Kazbegi (155 km length) - crossing of the Eastern Greater Caucasus; 2) Tbilisi–Borjomi-Vardzia (240 km length) - crossing of the Lesser Caucasus: 3) Tbilisi-Kutaisi -Ushguli (450 km length) - Crossing of the transcaucasian massive and Western Greater Caucasus.

Key words: Caucasus, Georgia, geoparks, geotourist route

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