Technology and Engineering
  • ISSN: 2333-2581
  • Modern Environmental Science and Engineering

Evaluation of Wastewater Collection and Disposal in Kabul City and Its Environmental Impacts

Zabihullah Paiman, and Ali Reza Noori
Department of Water Supply and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Kabul

Polytechnic University, Kabul, Afghanistan

Abstract: Nowadays many water resources are polluted by anthropogenic sources including household, agricultural wastes and industrial processes. Public concerns over the environmental impact of wastewater pollution has increased [1], and become a critical issues in many cities in the world, especially in Kabul city. There is no centralized sewerage system in Kabul City. Sewer lines and wastewater treatment plants are operated only in some small scales and specific areas like new townships. Only the Macrorayon system has a sewerage system with partially treatment plants. Most residents use pit latrines or septic tanks for black and grey water, and discharge it to the streets side channels or city drains. Due to economic concerns of emptying septic tanks, their usages are difficult for most residents. According to the interview survey by the German Development Bank (KfW) water study, traditional toilets (pit latrines) are used by 86% of the city residents [2]. Sewage of pit latrines is vacuumed up periodically by private contractors and disposed at a solid waste landfill site or in agriculture land as fertilizer. Sludge of septic tanks are also vacuumed up periodically and disposed at the solid waste landfill site. Such conditions are not adequate, as overflow of sewage on streets is often observed which is threatening the quality of groundwater, surface water and air which causes risks for public health. The private contractors vacuum the sewage and sludge up for fees. They bring such sewage and sludge to the solid waste landfill sites for disposal. Most contractors, however, sell the sludge to farmers or dispose it into city drains. This paper reviews the present condition of sewerage system in Kabul city and its effect to the environment especially effects on groundwater of Kabul City which forms the only source of drinking water for the Kabul city with more than 5 million populations. Most parts of these sources are already contaminated and the presence of E. coli has been proven in most water wells. The paper focuses on potential environmental impacts of wastewater in the city by using checklist method of EIA and suggested suitable alternatives.

Key words: Kabul city, wastewater, groundwater, EIA

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